Profile Designing

It is all about what do you want to get from your coffee beans.

Understanding the nature of your coffee and your roaster are the essential keys to reach your goal.

I will explain few things related to green coffee beans may help you to improve roast profiling.

Density : beans with high density absorb energy quicker than lower density, thats why its better to be charged on higher temp than lower density beans. If you don’t have density analyzing tool, you can kind of rely on altitude, higher altitude beans normally are more dens than lower altitude due to cold weather, which allows the coffee cherry to mature slower and be more dens.

Thats why i charge the Ethiopian beans somewhere between 195-205 C degrees for 800g batches, while I charge the Brazilian 800g batch between 180-185 C (I am using humidity and density analyzer).

I charge the beans, let it soak for a minute at least (normally turning point would be around 1:05 and 1:10 minuets ). I prefer applying heat after the bean obserb the heat to the core to avoid roasting from outside.

My advise is you should preheat your roaster well, to make sure the locked energy goes to the bean, if the roaster was not ready, you will waste some of your energy source on heating both the beans and the roaster itself. But if you preheated your roaster as you should, all the energy will go to the beans.

Maintaining the momentum of the heat is mandatory during the dry phase. Thus I prefer to do not go higher than F2 during the drying phase ( between charge and yellow point). But after the yellow point, and during the milard phase, we better increase the fan to be F4 for 600g batches and F5 for 800g batches, to increase the conviction and rely less on the conduction, that may affect the momentum, because we are blowing some of the energy we were maintaining during the dry phase, but it will increase the clarity in our cup.

Yet, we will increase the fan speed one more time ahead of the first crack point, to blow the traped somke out of the roaster and get a cleaner cup. I go for F6 for the 600g batch and F7 for the 800g batch.

I advise to depend on Bean pulp temp all the during roast phases,

If we had 2 roasts for the same batch ended on 220C degrees, first one ended in9 minutes while the second one ended in 11 minutes. The first one will be with higher acidity less body and higher clarity, while the second one will has a richer body, more bitter, less acidity and clarity.

If I want to roast a fruity notes coffee, I will hunt for a quicker roast time. But that greedy desire may lead to underdeveloped roast with greens and grassy notes, if you noticed these notes in your cupping, thats mean it was dried from outside, but was not dried enough in the core. Better to adjust the profile to increase the span of the drying phase.

If you noticed chocolate, brown sugar and nuts in a profile designed for a fruity flowery beans, thats mean your milard phase had taken longer time, push more energy between yellow point and first crack to shorten the the middle phase (aka : caramelization / milard).

Please, keep in mind, there is no one correct way to do anything including roasting, roasting is all about choices we make to achieve what we like.

I hope these notes may be helpful for you. Thank your for taking time reading my article, and I am open for any comments.

Have a good roasts.

SCA Certified Intermediate Roaster
Diploma In Coffee Roasting & Blending from Espresso. Academy - Firenze, Italy


I am new to all of this and definitely do not carry any certifications or have had access to any training outside of Youtube.

Any time I attempt a profile that involves higher heat earlier, I end up with scorched beans.

What works for me consistently is usually a pyramid style roast where the RoR is kept steady at about 10c +/- 1 until yellowing, then a RoR of 8c +/- 1 until about first crack where it creeps up and I let it push through. Reading so many posts here tells me the conventional wisdom is that I’m baking my beans, but I just don’t think that’s the case (again, I am new so maybe I am incorrect).

This is a typical roast for me where things are going pretty good on 800g of Indonesian beans roasted just to the end of 1C:

I’m sure more than one of you will be horrified by this profile, but the coffee tastes great IMHO. I would love to hear comments on why this is not a more common profile.


Again, it is about what you want and what you get, if you were satisfied with the outcome of your roasting, then you got what you want. But if you desired a higher temperature charge with no scorchings, thats a different topic.

Scorchings, tippings and facing, these are roasting defects signs, it tells us that the temp was too high for these specific beans.

My advice, when you reduce charge temp, do not do extreme drop, just try 10 C degrees and evaluate the outcome.


Some of the conventional wisdom derives from the intuitions of very experienced roasters, distilled from observations of roasts on larger, gas-fired commercial roasters. So while there is good information to be had from that, a couple things:

  • A lot of that wisdom hasn’t been tested scientifically; it’s more opinion (often from respected authorities on roasting, to be sure) than proven fact.
  • A Bullet is different from a big ole Probat in many, many ways, so wisdom gleaned from the latter might now apply as well to the former.

A lot of folks on these forums have moved from fussing over beautifully declining RoR to simpler methods. You have an approach that yields good results in your cup, and as Majid put it above, that’s what matters! Try other profiles from time to time, but if you like what you’re doing now better, stick with it! You might be onto something…


Majid, why do you need a density analyzer? Isn’t density Mass / Volume? You can get the same information with a scale and something to measure volume, can’t you?

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Hello Chris,

Definitely you are right. And this method called bulk density measurement. And it is the same method the analyzer uses. But the analyzer I am measures the humidity as well, it is 2-1. If i can recall it correctly , the device I am using costs around 75$.

Not sure what you have in mind but the issue isn’t as simple as measuring the volume of beans in a measuring cup. The volume you want is the sum of the volume of the individual beans. You can possibly do that by measuring the displaced volume of water in a measuring cup but that probably has a built-in error as the beans will absorb some of the water. Or you can do it as Majid is doing using a density analyzer (also called a densitometer? not sure, but definitely not the photographic densitometer).



Hi Bruce. You are right. Its not 100% accurate. But the method is good enough for generally assessing relative density. Its how most roaster measure density.

Hello Chris,

You bruce, both are right, even the analyzer, do the same calculations. And these methods are not accurate , but they are used as references. Lets put it this way, the analyzer is a fancy method of doing the same traditional density measurements done by roasters.

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I’d recommend a 100ml graduated cylinder instead of a measuring cup. A narrower container is easier to consistently fill to comparison. Just set up your system and always do it the same way. I make sure I tap and tamp beans down to get them to settle as low as possible.

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A visual cue of density for me is when I measure out my greens in a plastic container. A lower density green for me fills up more space in my container as opposed to a higher density green. This is, of course, assuming that the moisture content is similar.

To add to it, from my personal experience, my higher density beans crack later than my lower density beans, by as much as 5 Degree C. Further, I have found managing the post FC development different based on density.

@alghamdi.majid1b1s this is not related to density, but any insights on post FC crash? I have a particular bean that has a tendency to crash after FC (most of the time).

Hello Cash,

FC temp I believe related to moistures in the beans, beans with higher moistures I noticed reach first crack in lower temperatures than less moistures beans. And thats why I am using the analyzer, it shows me both humidity levels and density.

Hello Cash, could share the profile of the crashing bean!?

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Ever since I have started using D8 from 135 C to the end of roast, I have sort of mitigated some of the crash, but it still exhibits that tendency to some extent…


Hey @cash0612 firstly I give you credit for putting me on the path to 1kg batches as I started with your 1kg profiles over a year ago. However since then I have made some tweaks which seems to help me mitigate the crash for some beans. I “heat soak” a bit right after I charge the beans. If you look at my last four roasts from Jan 28 you’ll see what I did to smooth out the crash on 3 of the 4 roasts (this is the first of the 4 on that day) - I still struggle with the Ehtiopia Agaro crashing but the cupping isn’t had actually :slight_smile: I’m thinking of making one or two more tweaks the next time I roast and see how it turns out.


This is a delayed rejoinder… for me, personally, my FC, temperature-wise is very uniform for a given batch of beans irrespective of the moisture content. That being said, it is a huge struggle reaching the yellowing phase after drop with beans that have excess moisture. After that initial struggle (which pushes the yellow phase to later than usual) the other milestones are in tune relatively. The delay in yellowing pushes the milestones further by that amount of time though, temperature-wise, the milestones are almost spot on.

Meanwhile, ever since iROR has been enabled, the IBTS has remained my go to probe. That being said, though the manual does not say much about the need to clean the sensors (IBTS & BT) very regularly, I clean both every 10Kgs when I clean the faceplate and also during deep clean.